B1 Exercise – What vs. Which

free 3 minute English lesson

Which vs. What

When do I use “Which” or “What” as the first word in a question?

When you look up “which” and “what” in a German dictionary, you will see both words translate to “welcher/welche/welches”.  So how do they differ in meaning? Which word do I use when? (Sorry, I had to use the word “which”.)

Explanations with examples for “which”:

We use “which” ONLY when there is a known choice available. There can be 2 or 20: the number of choices doesn’t matter but they often can be seen.

Example 1:

Situation: You are standing in front of a shop window and can see 2 cameras:  You ask your friend: “Which camera do you like”?  In this case, there is a limited number of choices and they can be seen.

Photographer Annie Spratt

Example 2:

Which dress do you like better?  This one or that one?

Example 3:

Here’s one from the Internet (2016):

Which Premier League Manager is facing the biggest headache?

Explanations with examples for “what” and “what kind of”:

We use “What?” or “What kind of” when we ask a general open question without any specific choices known.  In the answer, you may think of several different choices, but none of these choices have been specified to you in the question. 

Example 1:

Situation: Imagine you are at someone’s home as a guest and they ask: “What would you like to drink?”  You can not see the choices so you ask in return: “What do you have?” or “What’s easy?”

Examples 2 & 3

Situation: You want to learn more about someone and their preferences. You ask:

“What kind of apples do you like?”

(There are many “kinds” or “varieties” of apples but no specific variety has been specified in the question.)

Example 3

What is your favorite color?

(Again – a very open, general question to find out someone’s tastes.)

Let’s see now if you can complete the following quick practice exercise.

Quick Practice Exercise: Which vs. What

Fill in the blank with “which” or “what”.  (Answers provided below).

1. _________ time is it?  
2. _________ meeting would you like to attend – the morning or afternoon one?
3. ________ did they say about your report? Did they like it?
4. Can you tell me _________ is the correct answer, please?  
5. __________ contestant do you think will win?  

 

Answers to Practice 1 Exercise: Which vs. What

  1. What
  2. Which
  3. What
  4. what or which (what – if asking in general: which – if you can see 2 or more choices)
  5. Which (there are a number of contestants you have seen perform)

 

Quick Practice 2  Exercise: What vs. What kind of

Fill in the blank with “which” or “what”.  (Answers provided below).

1. _________ is your favorite number?  
2. _________ home would you prefer to live in: an apartment or a house?
3. ________ city has the tallest building?
4. Can you tell me _________ you would like to do now?  I am completely out of ideas.
5. __________ car do you have?  There are three more people who need a ride.  Is it big enough for us all?  
 

Answers to Practice 2 Exercise: What vs. What kind of

  1. What
  2. What kind of
  3. What
  4. what 
  5. What kind of

The creative commons license photographs used on this page were just two from thousands of talented photographers showcased on a Canadian venture called Upsplash. To view their collection, please check out: Upsplash.com

 

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Use of English – “sleep in” versus to “oversleep”

free 3 minute English lesson

Use of English Q&A Email – For those of us who like to sleep-in!

Hi everyone,

A German-speaking student e-mailed me this tricky question about the difference between when we use to “sleep in” versus to “oversleep”.  Here’s how I responded:

Question: Which is correct?

If I don’t wake up on time (verschlafen), do I sleep in or oversleep?

Answer:  I like your question.  There definitely is a difference in attitude when I sleep in or oversleep.  My husband mistakes my sleeping in for oversleeping all the time on Saturdays!   He’s a real early bird. Here’s what I mean….

When we want to wake up at a specific time, especially for work, and don’t – then we would use the term to oversleep.  For example: “My alarm clock didn’t go off and I overslept.  Sorry I’m late.”

When we purposely want to sleep for a long time in the morning, for example, on Saturdays of Sundays, then we say:  “No alarm clocks tomorrow for me – let’s just sleep in.” (American English)  OR ” Let’s have a lie in tomorrow.”  (British English)

Maybe the visual below might help you remember the meaning of “oversleep”, taken from: www.geeksaresexy.com

oversleeping

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B2 Reading Exercise – Mendocino – north of San Francisco, California

free 3 minute English lesson

 

Mendocino Rock

“In California, I really appreciated Mendocino“, says Sophie Sainte-Marie, the Swiss traveler about her trip last year. “(It’s) a little and peaceful city in the north of San Francisco.

 

 

The sunset above the ocean from the rock was stupendous; you can stay a long time their and simply admire the view. The houses with a “New England” style and their beautiful gardens were delightful!”

Sophie also got to jog along the Big River. “(It) is really a beautiful experience and makes you feel a little bit like an adventurer. Very nice landscape and colors. A good place to refuel!”

She and her partner stayed at the guesthouse, Nicholson House Inn, where she says they were ” welcoming and (they) really appreciated their home-made scones at breakfast!”

“I won’t forget this place and atmosphere.”

So maybe the next time you head to California, you may consider stopping by this enchanting town.  It definitely looks worth it.

 

Quick Lesson before you go away on holiday?

Use of English – interesting vs. interested in

free 3 minute English lesson

INTERESTING vs. INTERESTED IN 

Question: When do I use “interesting” and when “interested”?

The answer may come as a surprise to you.  Let’s look at these 2 sample sentences using interested in and interesting:

a) I am interested in politics.

b) Politics is interesting.

These are not verbs.  They are both adjectives!

Here is an example  with “interest” as a verb.  Notice it is a transitive verb that needs a reflexive pronoun as its object:

c) Politics interests me. (interests = transitive verb*; me = reflexive pronoun*)

* See upcoming blog posts for explanations of these grammar terms.

3 HELPFUL RULES:

Rule 1: Use the “-ed” form when you talk about internal feelings.

Rule 2: Use the “-ing” form when describing something external.

Rule 3: Although these words are based on verbs, they are more frequently used in their adjective form.

Here are 3 more examples comparing the “-ed” and “-ing” forms:

 

 

1a) The students are bored (because the teacher and the class is boring).

2a) He seems tired (because his work is tiring).

3a) They were confused (because the story was confusing).

Now look at these examples, in the verb form:

1b) The teacher and class bored me.

2b) His work tires him.

3b) The story confused them.

Here is a short exercise to check your comprehension.

Directions: Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the word shown in brackets.

1.  The documentary they showed was very __________ (interest).

2.  The pupils seem __________ (distract) in their math class.

3. When the football season ended, the fans were rather ___________ (disappoint) their team came in second place.

4. Knowing how _________ (worry) my mother can get, I phone her every day.

5. I can hear banging noises in my office all day due to the construction work going on.  It really ________ (disturb) me.

Scroll down for the answers.

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